Изыскания по маршруту газопровода

Изыскания являются фундаментом таких масштабных инфраструктурных проектов, как «Северный поток ‑ 2». Они играют ключевую роль в обеспечении безопасной реализации проекта, предоставляя необходимые данные для технического проектирования, оптимизации маршрута, оценки воздействия на окружающую среду (ОВОС) и получения разрешений, экологического менеджмента и мониторинга, финансирования и страхования, контроля качества и эксплуатации.

Вдоль всего маршрута газопровода через Балтийское море от России до Германии будет изучен коридор шириной не менее 1,5 км, а также будут проведены исследования от морской поверхности до дна на глубину до 200+ м. Для безопасной укладки газопровода необходимо учесть все особенности морского дна, включая крутизну склонов рельефа, тип донных отложений и выходы скальных пород, экологически уязвимые участки, глубину воды,  а также наличие объектов, препятствующих строительству — от элементов инфраструктуры до затонувших судов и неразорвавшихся боеприпасов.

Исследовательские суда Nord Stream 2 с самым современным оборудованием позволяют собрать высокоточные трехмерные данные и в настоящее время проводят картографирование маршрута. Эта работа позволит минимизировать экологическое воздействие и гарантировать безопасную эксплуатацию нового газопровода. Благодаря использованию самых передовых технологий состоящая из 11 этапов программа изысканий реализуется с опережением графика. Изыскания начались в конце 2015 года. Планируется, что они продлятся до конца 2017 года. Более подробную информацию о высокотехнологичных изысканиях вы найдете здесь:

Картографирование морского дна в рамках высокотехнологичных исследований по «Северному потоку – 2»

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Компания Nord Stream 2 уделяет особое внимание детальному исследованию морского дна и окружающей среды. Данные, собираемые нашей флотилией судов в Балтийском море, играют важную роль в согласовании и планировании строительства. Используя новейшие технологии для сбора данных с максимально возможным разрешением, мы оптимизируем маршрут, который обеспечит безопасную эксплуатацию нового газопровода с минимальным воздействии на окружающую среду.

Baltic Sea Discoveries with Nord Stream 2

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With state of the art technology, Nord Stream 2 is surveying the Baltic Sea floor all the way from Russia to Germany. And with a route of over 1,200 kilometres to inspect for the planning and construction of the new natural gas pipeline, our expert survey team has discovered some fascinating objects.

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An officer navigates the Go Electra’s route as it embarks upon the next leg of Nord Stream 2’s survey work, which was complicated due to the winter darkness and a number of small islands along the way. “The atmosphere is one of intense focus, and those on board don’t take much free time,” says photographer Axel Schmidt of the international crew, who work in rotating 12-hour shifts.

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A key tool in surveying the seabed to secure the Nord Stream 2 pipeline route are Remotely Operated Vehicles, or ROVs, like this one. “It’s fascinating to observe the ROV collect information much in the same way that the Mars rover does,” Schmidt says.

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“One of the best parts of living on board is the opportunity to experience this kind of atmospheric light every day,” says Schmidt. “Each morning I went up to the bridge to watch the sunrise and speak with the officers about what had happened overnight and what the day would hold.”

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For this leg of the survey work, the Go Electra was operated by Dutch contractor N-Sea. The nearly 80-metre long vessel is named after the modern electric technology that allows it to stay in one place without anchors, moving along the research path incrementally as the crew carefully examines the seabed below. “It’s a bit like a spaceship,” says Schmidt. “It moves swiftly for a survey vessel, is totally modern and even has a sauna on board.”

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“This remote-controlled technology is a way to discover things in completely new dimensions, thousands of metres deep in places that humans can’t reach,” says the photographer, who spent countless hours observing its activities and had a screen in his cabin that showed live images of what it found underwater.

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Here, the ROV is raised to adjust the calibration equipment, which allows its location to be measured to within a few decimeters even at more than 200 metres beneath the sea.

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Every moment the ROV is out of the water costs money, which is why Nord Stream 2 hires only the best engineers, technicians and scientists for its operation in this important phase of preparation for the pipeline’s construction.

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Here, a worker uses a pipe cleaner to dry the equipment after changing a light. The crew is highly disciplined, but the atmosphere is collegial. “Everyone is really happy about their jobs and fascinated by the work,” Schmidt says. “Falling oil prices have stressed the offshore industry and jobs have become scarce, which makes it that much more meaningful.”

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Every time the ROV is out of the water, technicians use the opportunity to conduct maintenance. “The team has made an art out of ensuring that it has as little downtime as possible,” Schmidt says.

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The ROV features a robotic arm made of titanium that can be used to move stones and other objects aside to make way for the pipeline along the seabed.

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An electrical and fibre-optic cable attaches the ROV to the vessel allowing the ROV to be navigated close to the seabed.

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It transports the data and images collected by the ROV along the sea floor back to the vessel, where technicians can review it in real time. During this particular phase of Nord Stream 2’s survey work, the crew was carefully identifying objects along the planned route to determine whether they might need to be moved later.

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On occasion, the ROV detects something out of the ordinary, like unexploded ordnance from past military conflicts. Here, the ROV pilots, a UXO technician and Nord Stream 2’s offshore representative Bob Pirie discuss a mine they’ve discovered. “It can be a really delicate process,” Schmidt says. “The ROV looks at these kind of objects from all angles to determine exactly what kind of mine it is.”

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ROV pilots use joysticks just like those installed in helicopters to operate the ROVs. They even call their work “flying.”

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The Baltic Sea was littered with mines after the world wars, and the planned pipeline route intentionally avoids critical areas. “This means there are days that go by without finding a single mine, which everyone is naturally very happy about,” says Schmidt. Here, the ship’s survey manager works in the foreground as the UXO operator scans screens behind him.

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“This image illustrates the bond between the team and their machine,” says Schmidt. “They always give them affectionate nicknames.”

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“When you spend 12 hours a day in a dark room with someone, you get to know them pretty well,” Schmidt jokes. Here, technicians survey the sea floor in a quiet moment.

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When ordnance like this World War II mine is found, the technicians record every detail in a report to enable specialists to decide how it should be dealt with. The screen on the bottom left shows the double pipeline route on an underwater map created earlier with sonar, marked with points that need further investigation with ROV. This particular section of the survey clarified whether they are stones or mines, for example.

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Here, in the offline room, the survey data is processed to send to Nord Stream 2’s headquarters for analysis and planning.

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After completing its two-week leg of the survey, there was a crew and vessel change in Finland’s Helsinki port. Nord Stream 2 logistics experts keep the survey work on a tight schedule, and the new crew embarked the same day with the vessel returning to work after taking on supplies.

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The Barracuda, another state-of-the-art survey vessel operated by N-Sea for Nord Stream 2, prepares for more survey work with a fresh crew. “We still have so much to learn about the ocean,” says photographer Schmidt. “And the people on the ship aren’t in the foreground or in the public eye, but they are among the best experts in the field.”