Supplying natural gas to Europe
The Nord Stream 2 pipeline will transport natural gas into the European Union to enhance security of supply, support climate goals and strengthen the internal energy market.
The EU needs to import more gas
Domestic gas production is set to halve in the next two decades, as ageing assets are retired and hard-to-reach North Sea resources become uneconomic. The EU will need to import more gas and will need additional infrastructure to transport these imports. Nord Stream 2 together with other suppliers and supply routes (such as LNG) will meet these requirements – the share between them will be decided by the market.
Russia’s geographic proximity, plentiful gas reserves and history of reliable supply make it a natural partner for a new gas transportation route that can enhance gas security.
Natural gas is a lower-carbon fuel
Demand for natural gas is predicted to continue. Natural gas is a lower-carbon fuel that can replace other fossil fuels in the energy mix and deliver a reliable output to complement intermittent renewable energy.
Today, the EU energy mix is still heavily reliant on coal, which produces about twice as much CO2 as natural gas, and oil, which has 25 per cent higher emissions.
Does Europe really need additional natural gas pipelines?
Gas production in the EU is forecast to decrease 50 per cent in the next 20 years. Russian gas is the best option to compensate.
With climate goals and the shift to renewable energy, does natural gas still fit?
Clean-burning gas can also help the EU to meet its climate targets.
Does this pipeline increase Europe’s dependency on Russia?
European gas companies will buy gas where they find the best deal.
Is Nord Stream 2 in line with the EU’s energy goals?
Nord Stream 2 clearly meets the three core goals of EU energy policy: competitive, secure, and sustainable.
Is the Nord Stream 2 pipeline subject to EU energy market regulation?
The EU’s internal gas market laws only regulate pipelines within the internal market – Nord Stream 2 lies outside of the internal market.
Is the new pipeline compatible with the EU’s diversification strategy?
Nord Stream 2 supports Europe’s security of supply. It provides a separate pipeline system along the Baltic Sea route and increases supply capacity.
Will the pipeline make other transport systems redundant?
Nord Stream 2 complements the existing natural gas import routes to the EU.
Will the pipeline pose a risk to the sensitive Baltic Sea environment?
The first Nord Stream project demonstrated that the impacts of construction were limited, local and temporary.
Will the pipeline have a negative impact on supply security for Eastern Europe?
Nord Stream 2 improves supply security and creates a stronger internal market for all.
Nord Stream 2 is widely discussed, but who will ultimately authorise its construction?
The permission to build Nord Stream 2 needs to be granted from the authorities of the countries through whose waters the pipeline will pass.
Choice will strengthen the gas market
Nord Stream 2 will enhance the EU’s security of supply and complement, not replace, existing gas supply options.
Once gas reaches the EU it will, in the future, be able to travel anywhere in the internal energy market. This means that it can top-up declining indigenous supply in the northwest, supplement the Southern Corridor to central and southern countries or stimulate additional connections and reverse-flows into eastern Europe.
An efficient supply route
The Nord Stream 2 pipeline through the Baltic Sea will deliver natural gas directly from some of the world’s largest known reserves in Russia to the neighbouring EU gas market. Nord Stream 2 is a privately-funded commercial project that aims to be one part of the solution to meet the future import demand.
Offshore pipelines have a lower local environmental impact than onshore pipelines. They also require less energy to maintain gas pressure and keep the gas flowing.