The pipeline passes through the territorial waters and/or Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of five countries. Construction permits had to be obtained in each national jurisdiction.

National legislation generally requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be completed as a prerequisite for national construction permits. These EIA reports are based on a broad range of seabed surveys, engineering design, data from independent experts and research institutions, and consultations with key stakeholders. According to country-specific legislation, these EIAs were submitted along with or prior to national permit applications to authorities in Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany.

Each country ultimately granted the necessary permits for construction. Nord Stream 2 is committed to building and operating in strict adherence to their conditions, with minimal impact to the environment. Throughout the process, active stakeholder engagement is being maintained and a grievance management system is available for community members to raise their concerns at any time.

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