As the Nord Stream 2 Pipeline passes through the territorial waters and/or the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany, the permits to construct and operate the pipeline must be obtained from each of these five countries.
Building cross-border infrastructure and protecting the environment requires international cooperation in a transboundary context. This is safeguarded in a variety of laws, conventions and treaties that govern international cooperation.
National legislation generally requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be completed as a prerequisite for national permits. The EIAs are based on a broad range of surveys, engineering design as well as on data from independent experts and research institutions.
According to the requirements of country specific national legislation, Nord Stream 2 submitted its national permit applications and EIA materials to the relevant national authorities of Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany.